Unity Government

MDC-T leader Mr Morgan Tsvangirai has made a dramatic U-turn on his recent attack on President Mugabe and service chiefs saying Zimbabweans should remain united and stop attacking each other in the media.

Addressing a rally at Mkoba Stadium in Gweru recently, Mr Tsvangirai accused President Mugabe and Zanu-PF of peddling lies and misinforming Zimbabweans about the recent Sadc summit on Zimbabwe in South Africa.

He also challenged the country’s security chiefs to leave the military and join the political ring, a remark, which attracted strong rebuke from across the board.

The backlash that followed has apparently forced Mr Tsvangirai to tone down his utterances. He told mourners at the burial of one of the party officials, Dr Mufandaedza Hove, in Mberengwa on Saturday that

Zimbabweans should stop criticising each other and instead work to promote unity, peace and development in the country.

“We have heard people lurching at each other in the Press and I don’t think this will help us build the Zimbabwe we want. There is no need for us to fight.

“Yes we can compete and try to win support on the political front but what we want at the end of the day is to make Zimbabwe move forward,” said Mr Tsvangirai. He said political parties continued to devote much of their time to blaming each other at the expense of development.

“We have said this and that to each other in the papers but we are saying as MDC, lets now focus on unity and development,” he said.

Mr Tsvangirai said MDC-T subcribes to peace.

“There is no reason for us to fight each other on political grounds, if you are Zanu-PF, remain Zanu PF and if you are MDC, you should ascribe to the party’s auspices which are peace and integrity. Why should one slap his or her kinsman for supporting a certain party? There is surely no reason for that,” he said.

Mr Tsvangirai touched off a storm of protests when he accused security chiefs of dabbling in politics.

Brigadier-General Douglas Nyikayaramba hit back, making it clear that the armed forces are justified in making some statements that can be viewed as political because Mr Tsvangirai was a national security threat, not a political one.

Dr Hove died on admission at Claybank Hospital in Gweru last week after he fell sick while attending the MDC-T rally at Mkoba Stadium. Mr Tsvangirai said the death of Dr Hove was a loss to his party, “We have lost a man of integrity, an adviser and a brother whom we will all miss.” MDC-T national organising secretary, Mr Nelson Chamisa, claimed Zanu-PF had refused to agree to his party’s demands concerning the criteria used for the conferment of National Hero Status, suggesting that if there was agreement Dr Hove would have been buried at the national heroes acre.

“As MDC, we are not happy with the way the selection of people who should be buried at the National Heroes Acre is being done by Zanu-PF, if it was being done in accordance with what we are advocating for, surely the late Dr Hove would be one of our members to be buried at the Heroes Acre.

“We were together since the formation of the party and have been fighting together in the struggle which has seen us being the popular party today,” he said.

President Mugabe has made it clear that the National Heroes Acre is for those with liberation war credentials and those who worked for the fulfillment of the ideals of the revolutionary struggle after independence.

He told the MDC formations and those with heroes of their own to look for their own hills and build their own heroes acres where they can bury those they perceive to be heroes. The late Dr Hove, a long time lecturer at the University of Zimbabwe, is survived by wife, Eunice, and three children.

Also present at his burial was Mr Tsvangirai’s deputy Ms Thokozani Khupe, Midlands State University Vice Chancellor Professor Ngwabi Bhebhe and some University of Zimbabwe officials.


Zimbabwe’s partisan securocrats, the real power behind President Robert Mugabe and ZANU PF, have allegedly taken steps to have a greater say in the floundering Global Political Agreement (GPA) negotiations.

This information came to light yesterday as Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai’s MDC was said to be meeting to discuss the involvement of the security structures in the GPA negotiations and how to handle the situation.

Sources in the military claimed that securocrats were so bewildered by both the pace of change in the country since the formation of the inclusive government and the positions being agreed to by ZANU PF GPA negotiators that the top brass of the military were now reserving the right to veto all decisions that they did not like, even if these decisions had been agreed to by all GPA negotiators.

“The chefs (top brass of the police and military) are frightened by the pace of change in the country and how easily ZANU PF negotiators are being pushed into positions that disadvantage ZANU PF.

“They are now demanding that they have the final say on what is adopted by the GPA principals, and they are getting their way with President Mugabe.  They no longer have any confidence in (justice minister Patrick) Chinamasa because he is agreeing to the powers of the military being usurped.

“This uneasiness is also the reason why (defence minister Emmerson) Mnangagwa is currently acting as if he is foreign minister ahead of the crucial Sadc extraordinary summit planned for this weekend in Windhoek (Namibia),” the source said.

Mnangagwa, by far Mugabe’s most trusted lieutenant despite being linked to the Tsholotsho Declaration which was allegedly organised by serial political flip-flopper Jonathan Moyo and others to oust the octogenarian leader from power six years ago, spent most of last week on a regional diplomatic charm offensive ahead of the Sadc meeting.

Among others, Mnangagwa met Angolan Vice President Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos in Luanda to deliver a special message from Mugabe and ZANU PF.

Speaking after the meeting, Mnangagwa was quoted saying Zimbabwe was peaceful – claiming further that Mugabe had “very good” working relations with Tsvangirai.

But contacted for comment yesterday, Mnangagwa dismissed the allegations that the securocrats were giving orders to ZANU PF negotiators.

“It is nonsense. The security chiefs are not involved in any talks. The GPA is a civil issue which the security forces cannot get involved in. People in the press create issues which they want to become real,” Mnangagwa said.

Negotiator for the smaller faction of the MDC Priscilla Misihairambwi-Mushonga said although the securocrats did not sit on the negotiating table, they were an important stakeholder in the process.

“We should look at what the role of security forces should be in peace building. Determining how engagement is going to take place in the process is the million dollar question. What could be dangerous is if all of us begin to speak about them in a fearful language,” she said.

ZANU PF spokesperson Rugare Gumbo to comment on the issue, saying: “Go and ask them (securocrats and negotiators”.

Meanwhile, there is confusion around whether the Namibia Sadc meeting will go ahead this weekend as planned, even though Foreign Affairs officials said last night that the meeting was still on.

If the extraordinary summit on the Zimbabwe crisis goes ahead, it will look to consolidate the positions taken by its troika team on politics and defence – in a desperate quest to end the anarchy in Harare.

Specifically, South Africa is expected to push for the implementation of all outstanding issues specified in the GPA, ahead of a much-anticipated national election to be held either next year or in 2013.

However, analysts expect Mugabe and ZANU PF to fight to win back their favoured position in the region as indicated by Mnangagwa’s visit to Angola – a duty that would ordinarily fall on the foreign ministry.

“It is not a coincidence that Mnangagwa is shuttling from one country to the next in the region.  It is because he wants to warn all ZANU PF’s friends that they are under siege from the South Africans in particular.

“Crucially too, he wants to send the powerful message that the military won’t accept regime change (ZANU PF euphemism for the removal of Mugabe and the party from power) in Zimbabwe,” our source in the military said.

Although GPA negotiators have agreed that credible elections could only be held as from next year only, Mugabe and ZANU PF – backed by the military – have insisted that the ballot will be held later this year.


Negotiators of the shaky inclusive government, with the exception of Moses Mzila-Ndlovu of the MDC, met yesterday to deliberate on the election roadmap and adjourned to today (Thursday) when they are expected to finalise their work as prescribed by the Sadc Troika.

The warring parties are fighting over powers of the security forces especially the police whom the MDCs accuse of being partisan.

One of Zanu PF’s negotiators Patrick Chinamasa said the negotiations were likely to be concluded today.

“We met to deliberate on the roadmap and we have concluded our deliberations. We will write our reports overnight and approve them tomorrow (today),” he said.

Mzila-Ndlovu, who had been languishing in police cells in Lupane, was released Wednesday, but could not make it for the negotiations in Harare resulting in the MDC being represented only by its secretary-general Priscilla Misihairabwi-Mushonga.

She too confirmed what Chinamasa said. MDC-T negotiators Tendai Biti and Elton Mangoma could not be reached for comment by the time of going to print.


The Attorney-General’s office has drafted an indictment for the arrest of Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai on contempt of court charges.

Well-placed sources in the Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs told The Zimbabwean that Chief Law Officer Chris Mutangadura had prepared the document to be sent to the police, who will arrest Tsvangirai.

Soon after the dethroning of Speaker of Parliament Lovemore Moyo by a Supreme Court ruling that nullified his election, Tsvangirai described the bench as a, “willing appendage of ZANU PF.”

Responding news of his possible arrest Tsvangirai said it would be the end of the GNU.  “If there are people who want to arrest me, I am here and I don’t think I want to run away,” he said. “I have heard about it (the arrest) and we will see how they proceed but that will be the last nail in this whole delicate and fragile government.”

According to the draft, Tsvangirai will be charged under Section 82(1) subsections (a) and (b) of the Criminal Law (Codification and Reform) Act, for his comments about the bench.

The section reads: “Any person who, by any act or omission, impairs the dignity, reputation or authority of a court – intending to do so or realising that there is a real risk or possibility that his or her act or omission may have such an effect, shall be guilty of contempt of court and liable to a fine not exceeding level six or imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year or both.”

Contacted for comment, Mutangadura professed ignorance, “I have not seen such a document I will be in a position to inform you tomorrow,” he said.


The election of a new Zimbabwe Speaker of Parliament was on Tuesday cancelled over reports that Zanu (PF) is confused about its choice of candidate.

Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai’s Movement for Democratic Change (MDC-T) party vowed its legislators will proceed to Parliament in spite of the cancellation by Clerk of Parliament Austin Zvoma.

Zanu (PF) insiders confided to Radio VOP on Tuesday that the former ruling party was in a quandary over the choice of a candidate to contest against former speaker Lovemore Moyo of the MDC-T.

The MDC-T described Zvoma as a Zanu (PF) functionary in a statement on Tuesday. The party was expected to address journalists at the Parliament building at 2pm.

“Zanu PF is scared of the vote for speaker because of factionalism and divisions in that party. The people’s Party of excellence, MDC is united, and ready to win the vote together with other progressive members of parliament across the political divide,” read the MDC statement.

Members of Parliament, Lucia Matibenga and Paurina Gwanyanya – Mpariwa who were out of the country on parliamentary business had to fly back for the vote. The MDC has the full set of its MPs except for Hon Costin Muguti, in police custody on what the party said are trumped up charges.


South African President Jacob Zuma will this week send his facilitation team to Zimbabwe to diffuse simmering tensions in the coalition after heavy lobbying by Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai.

Tsvangirai returned home on Friday after a whirlwind regional tour that took him to Zambia, Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa and Botswana to raise the alarm on the worsening relations in Harare’s unity government.

The PM said he had told regional leaders that the coalition government had been hijacked by “dark and sinister forces” with the country now sliding into a police state.

Zuma reacted by promising to send his three-member facilitation team led by a senior advisor Charles Nqakula.

Former minister Mac Maharaj and Zuma’s international relations advisor Lindiwe Zulu are the other members of the team.

“South Africa has been tasked by SADC to work with the Zimbabwean parties to find solutions to their political challenges,” the South African presidency said in a statement on Friday.

“President Zuma will next week send his Zimbabwe facilitation team to Harare to meet parties to the Global Political Agreement.”

The visit by the team also comes ahead of the meeting of the SADC troika on peace and security in Zambia on March 31 to deal with the Zimbabwe crisis.

Zuma might have been forced to dispatch the trio after indications that relations between ZANU PF and MDC-T had broken down, paralysing the inclusive government in the process.

“While I was away in the last four days, it appears the civilian authority is no longer in charge and dark and sinister forces have engaged in a hostile takeover of running the affairs of the country,” Tsvangirai told journalists.

An already volatile situation in the inclusive government was inflamed by the arrest of Energy and Power Development minister Elton Mangoma last Thursday on corruption charges.

On the same day it was announced that the Supreme Court had nullified the election of MDC-T chairman Lovemore Moyo as Speaker of Parliament.

Tsvangirai and Moyo reacted angrily and accused the police and the judiciary of being in ZANU PF’s pocket.

ZANU PF apologists including Tsholotsho North MP Jonathan Moyo called for the PM’s arrest on contempt of court charges and there were indications that the country’s prosecutions authority was taking the calls seriously.

A ban on an MDC-T rally that was scheduled for Harare yesterday left the future of the inclusive government increasingly doubtful.

Brilliant Mhlanga, a Zimbabwean academic based at the University of Westminster in the UK said not much should be expected from Zuma’s team as they were only there to facilitate dialogue.

“He merely is sending his teams to facilitate dialogue and end there,” Mhlanga said.

“The rest should be left to the Zimbabweans to decide whether they want their coalition to collapse or not.

“Zuma can facilitate dialogue between Zimbabweans and then leave everything to them to also decide the fate of their coalition government as rational beings.”

ZANU PF has embarked on an aggressive election campaign that also includes attempts to force Zimbabweans to sign a two-million-signature petition calling for an end to Western sanctions.

The party is holding its meetings undisturbed while its opponents face police bans.

Commenting on Tsvangirai’s regional tour, President Robert Mugabe’s spokesman George Charamba last week said there was nothing outsiders could do to stop ZANU PF’s electioneering.

“Let him go anywhere he thinks he can get help, but I can assure you that the momentum in Zimbabwe is unstoppable,” Charamba said.

“There is no stopping. We are going for elections.

“I have no respect for a political leader who conscripts a regional leader to douse a fire in his own home. The essence of politics is to be able to handle pressure,” he said.


With the threat of arrest hanging over him and his party restricted by ZANU PF, Zimbabwe’s opposition leader, Morgan Tsvangirai, faces his sternest leadership test since entering the coalition government with President Robert Mugabe.

Tsvangirai’s party chairperson, Lovemore Moyo, has been ousted from the key post of speaker of Parliament by a court ruling; six of his MPs, including a senior minister, face various charges; and Zanu-PF is pressing for his arrest on contempt of court charges.

Showing his frustration, Tsvangirai left the country to meet regional leaders, hoping to press them to step in. But this has not eased the pressure on him, even from within his party. There is increasing internal frustration that Mugabe has been running rings around the Movement for Democratic Change, which has failed to come up with any real strategy to push back a resurgent ZANU PF, which wants Tsvangirai arrested for his angry reaction to a Supreme Court ruling cancelling the election of Moyo as speaker, a powerful post both parties crave.

The court ruled that Moyo’s election was flawed because some MDC MPs had shown their ballots to party leaders before casting their votes. Because the race had been so close in that poll, the MDC leaders had opted not to take any chances and wanted to make sure that their members voted for their candidate.

The court ruled that this made the vote “null and void”. Following the ruling, Tsvangirai told reporters that the decision showed the judiciary was “a willing appendage of ZANU PF” and that his party would “not accept the decisions of some ZANU PF politicians masquerading as judges”. Mugabe’s party, he charged, was trying to use the courts “to subvert and regain what it lost in an election”.

Indeed, having lost control of Parliament for the first time in 2008, ZANU PF is clawing its way back. Now Tsvangirai will need to muster all his political skills to steer his party around the vote, regain control of the legislature and push ZANU PF back.

Mugabe’s party has increasingly set the agenda, managing to push to centre stage its twin central issues of Western sanctions and empowerment and completely drowning out the MDC’s reform agenda. The battle may escalate next Tuesday when Parliament is likely to sit to elect a new speaker. To win, Tsvangirai will have to negotiate with MPs from both ZANU PF and from the smaller MDC faction. Both these groups are bitterly opposed to Tsvangirai and he faces the tough job of cutting deals with them.

ZANU PF and the main MDC have 96 seats each, but the MDC may well have its numbers whittled down if the arrest of MPs continues. With eight votes, the smaller MDC may hold the balance of power. However, there’s no telling where those votes would go, with the faction split down the middle over a power struggle between party leader Welshman Ncube and Deputy Prime Minister Arthur Mutambara.

Lovemore Moyo will not be allowed to vote, Parliament clerk Austin Zvoma said this week. The case against the speaker was brought to court by Jonathan Moyo, who joined ZANU PF in 2009 again after leaving it to stand as an independent in the 2008 election. Since his return to ZANU PF, where he has been given a seat in Mugabe’s politburo, Moyo has increasingly driven the party’s strategy.

This week he stepped up pressure on the country’s attorney general, Johannes Tomana, a Mugabe ally, to arrest Tsvangirai and Lovemore Moyo for their criticism of the judges. “What now needs to be done is to teach him and Tsvangirai that they are not above the law and that they are prosecutable,” Moyo was quoted as saying on Wednesday. “There is no better way of teaching them that lesson than hauling them before the same court that they have held in contempt.”


Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai had a nightmarish 59th birthday on Thursday and his reaction to the multi-pronged setbacks could have left millions of  troubled Zimbabweans, pinning their hopes on his leadership, frustrated.

The biggest shock was the arrest of one of MDC-T’s negotiators in the topsy-turvy unity government, Elton Mangoma on corruption charges about which the country’s supposed co-holder of executive power only learned through a cellphone text message.

Mangoma, one of the coalition government’s most important ministers is accused of corruptly authorising a fuel deal involving a South African company and was remanded in custody until March 28.

As if that was not enough, news began filtering that MDC-T chairman Lovemore Moyo had lost his post as Speaker of the House of Assembly. Barely a day after the Supreme Court nullified  his election as Speaker, Moyo was ordered to vacate his government house and surrender parliament’s property.

The Supreme Court had upheld an appeal by Zanu PF Tsholotsho North MP Jonathan Moyo who challenged the former Matobo MP’s election to the hot seat.

Tsvangirai addressed a hastily- arranged press conference where he rehashed MDC-T’s now familiar rhetoric about a “divorce” from President Robert Mugabe and his Zanu PF.

In October 2009, MDC-T temporarily pulled out of the coalition government accusing Mugabe of being “dishonest and unreliable”.

The pullout followed the indictment of the party’s treasurer general Roy Bennett on terrorism charges.

MDC-T also cited a catalogue of complaints against Mugabe who had started showing reluctance in fulfilling commitments he made in the Global Political Agreement (GPA).

Bennett has since been acquitted by the courts but MDC-T’s grievances have continued to grow with each day as an increasingly confident Mugabe believes he can bury his opponents if an election is held soon.

An unprecedented police clampdown has netted a number of MDC-T MPs and Mangoma became the biggest catch in what many believe is a trumped-up case.

The developments had led many into believing that Tsvangirai had been pushed against the wall and may have wanted to prove to his doubters that he still had the muscle.

But even his threat to pull out sounded half-hearted as he was quick to point out that a fresh election was the only way out of the quagmire.

Observers believe Tsvangirai will stay in the inclusive government despite Mugabe’s intransigence because he believes that there is no guarantee that future elections would be free and fair.

South African President Jacob Zuma is currently working with the three parties in the unity government to produce a roadmap for the polls that Mugabe wants this year.

A referendum on the new constitution, which is also likely to go a long way in levelling the electoral playing field, is due later this year.

Zanu PF lost control of parliament for the first time since independence in 2008 following a dismal performance against the two MDC formations.

Tsvangirai also beat Mugabe in the first round of the presidential elections but failed to stand in the run-off after massive political violence, allegedly engineered by state agents.

Besides the setting up of the independent Zimbabwe Electoral Commission, the environment still hasn’t changed much.

“Zanu PF cadres and securocrats who murdered people in the run-up to the June 27 election are roaming free and no criminal charges have been pressed against the murderers of Tichaona Chiminya, Talent Mabika and the other 200 victims of the 2008 violence,” Tsvangirai admitted on Thursday.

Zanu PF, MDC-T marriage broken  irretrievably

Bekithemba Mpofu, a founding youth secretary general of the united MDC said it was now common cause that the relationship between Zanu PF and MDC-T had irretrievably broken down.

“When the coalition was formed Zanu PF was on its knees but now, having benefitted from the coalition, have since been able to crawl, walk and will be running soon,” Mpofu said.

“Evidently, they are now jogging, that’s why they have the luxury to start arresting opponents at will, threaten foreign companies and restart their violent campaigns.

“The MDC can continue to provide them with the life-support units that have since brought them back to life or can stop the supply before Zanu PF gets back its full confidence.”

Mpofu said Zanu PF knew that chances of MDC-T pulling out of the unity government were slim and would therefore continue to push boundaries in its quest to test Tsvangirai’s determination to stand resolute.

“It is foolhardy for anyone to ever think Zanu PF is in it to help the people as their main concern is and has always been about selfishly staying in power by any means,” he said.

“So if you are dealing with such a partner in a coalition using kid gloves, it can be counter-productive.

“I think Tsvangirai has patiently extended a hand of peace and unfortunately this has been mistaken for being weak. A more radical approach is required.”

He said if MDC-T pulled out Mugabe could continue as if nothing happened as was the case in 2009 and would then call for an early election with the conditions that are currently prevailing.


The chairing of the Cabinet meeting by Tsvangirai came a week after the MDC leader openly told Mugabe at a principals’ meeting on February 25 2011 that he would be held accountable for the violence against citizens by soldiers as he was the commander-in-chief of Defence Forces.

Documents shown to The Standard indicate that Tsvangirai told the principals at the meeting that the deployment of soldiers in rural areas was undermining civil authority.

The issue of deployment of soldiers has been discussed in several National Security Council (NSC) meetings but no solution has been reached.

“The commanders have not furnished the NSC with reports as legitimately expected nor have they carried out the implied direction of the NSC to account for and recall to barracks all soldiers that were deployed under the Maguta programme or AS (Army Special) duties,” reads the document in part.

Tsvangirai also told Mugabe the security sector had been undermining the authority of the Prime Minister for the past two years.

The documents say there has been reluctance from both line ministries and the service chiefs to accept the new dispensation “coupled with a deliberate display of disrespect” for the Prime Minister’s office.

“Instead a trend is discernible where there is an attempt to create exclusive zones where the military and the security sector are seen as equal and competing institutions,” says the document.

“The same observation applies to the conduct of the PSC (Public Service Commission) chairman Dr (Mariyawanda) Nzuwa who, in contravention of executive authority of the President of the Republic of Zimbabwe continues to decline effecting appointments to the Prime Minister’s staff.”

This conduct, says the document, frustrates efforts in terms of the Global Political Agreement (GPA) to have national institutions that are not partisan.

Tsvangirai also complained that the appointment of a security advisor and VIP protection to the Prime Minister was being frustrated through a variety of excuses for the past two years.

“It is clear that the appointment of the security advisor to the Prime Minister and that of the VIP protection is provided for under the Presidential Directive that forms the basis of the CIO (Central Intelligence Organisation),” said the document. “In all cases it is the President that is the ultimate authority in the appointment of staff into intelligence services.”


Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai on Tuesday said the unity government is still existing and its life span will be based on the road map set by the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

Tsvangirai said:”Let me assure you that the inclusive government is in existence. I want to assure you that it has not ended, but it will end when certain processes have been instituted.”

“The President has no unilateral power to call for elections without consulting the Prime Minister,” Tsvangirai told a public forum to discuss the unity government. “The main agenda for 2011 is to support the road map to a free and fair election. It will be certainly be illegal if the elections are called for by one person.”

The premier said he has been concerned by violence that has been happening in Harare surburbs of late.

Tsvangirai condemned the abuse of the state media to attack his party and office. He also challenged Zimbabweans to take part in issues that are affecting the country saying people should not expect one person to lead the struggle to have democracy.

“The struggle is not for one man alone while you sit at your home expecting change,” he said.

Meanwhile, Tsvangirai’s Movement for Democratic Change party said its Nyanga North MP, Douglas Mwonzora was arrested outside parliament for allegedly inciting violence in his constituency.

“Nyanga North MP Hon. Douglas Mwonzora was this evening arrested outside Parliament on unclear charges by police officers who said they were from the Law and Order Section,” the MDC said in an alert send to the media.

Rights group Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights said Mwonzora was arrested by three policemen and taken to Harare Central Police Station. ZLHR said the police had indicated that they were acting on instructions from CID Law and Order Section at Nyamaropa Police Station in Nyanga, Manicaland.

Last week Nyanga police arrested several Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) supporters after they held a meeting in Mwonzora’s constituency.

Meanwhile, Harare Magistrate Don Ndirowei on Tuesday granted bail to a Mabvuku councillor, Munyaradzi Kufahakutizwi who was charged with contravening Section 41 (b) of the Criminal Law (Codification and Reform) Act for alleged disorderly conduct in a public place.

Magistrate Ndirowei ordered Kufahakutizwi to pay US$50 and to report once a week on Fridays at Mabvuku Police Station. Councillor Kufahakutizwi, who was remanded out of custody to 4 March was also ordered to continue residing at his given residential address and not to interfere with witnesses.


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